Saint Petersburg the second largest city of Russia is the administrative center of the Russian federation Leningrad state, it is located in the Baltic sea, from the east coast, him estuary by the hundred islands on the Neva river delta and alluvial flat. Including satellite city and suburb covers an area of 1350 square kilometers, has a population of 5 million.
St Petersburg was the capital for two centuries. In 1703, Peter the great in shore of the Baltic sea from the hand of the Swede won the territory has set up a new city, named Saint Petersburg ─ ─ with the name of the distinctive characteristics of Germanic languages, to show determination to open the door of Russia to the west, Russia has finally got a connection port of the west, a west facing Windows. In 1712, Russia moved the capital from Moscow to St Petersburg. Since then until March 1918, in the more than 200 years, the Saint Petersburg has been the capital of Russia. After the outbreak of the first world war, the Russian removed the capital in 1914, the name of the Germanic languages, it was renamed Petergrad. In January 1924 after the death of Lenin Leningrad, after the collapse of the Soviet union in December 1991, Leningrad restored its historical name ─ ─ St Petersburg.
St Petersburg is in low position, only 1.2 2 meters above sea level, and also affected by the maritime temperate continental climate. It cold in winter, and the average temperature is in January – 8 ℃, ice period from mid November to April next year, in late. Summer, July is in mean temperature of 17.7 ℃. Annual rainfall of 585 mm. Local waterways and only Neva river branch reached more than 50, bridge across, more than 700 Bridges connect the various islands, beautiful landscapes, is called “north Venice”. In St Petersburg numerous Bridges, 21 of these Bridges in the democratic open between 2 to 5 points, to let the ship through. Every summer night, the river always gathered many tourists came to watch the drawbridge opened.
St Petersburg from being 60 degrees north latitude, the midsummer season, the sunshine nearly 20 hours, the sun blazes reflected the sky for a long time, after a short evening, began to appear a morning sunrise, just drop the red sun rises again, this is early summer between June and July every year “White Night” wonders.
Peter and Paul church bell tower
St Petersburg city from the east (including Walcott Lin island) formed a giant horseshoe city cluster: the north is residential, convalescence area and tourist area; South bank is a cultural and commercial center; Back to the east the Neva river stretch to Mr Ivanov, yeah. Downtown is Neva river tributaries is divided into four parts, the left bank of the Neva river (south) is the “sea military region”, is between big and small Neva Vasiliev island region, small Neva river and big Neva river between Petrograd district, east of the Neva river is a d fort area.
St Petersburg is Russia’s important harbour, and the main port is located in the southwestern city, river on both sides with granite embankments, port built dikes, man-made waterway and Walcott forest on the island of Kronstadt facility. Main import metal pipe port, industrial equipment, chemicals, sugar, cotton and fruit; Export machine, wood, coal, potash, and pyrite. Passenger are mainly concentrated in the summer (via the Baltic sea to the UK). Small vessel can reach Ladoga lake along the Neva river, and the associated with Russia Europe inland water system, by the lake Ladoga,, river, lake Onega, and the white sea canal. Ships can enter the white sea, combined with the Russian arctic ocean off the coast of the north sea routes, the lake Onega, Volga – Baltic sea road, the ship can be arrived in the Volga river basin, the Caspian sea and the black sea and sea of Azov.
Urban traffic developed, there are 10 railway radiated to Helsinki, Warsaw, Moscow and other cities in Russia.
St Petersburg is a cultural city. Here is Peter the great era built academy of sciences, and there are more than 40 universities and more than 400 scientific research institutions. One of the famous the national St Petersburg University, established in 1724, the national technical university of Saint Petersburg, the arctic and Antarctic research institute and permafrost research institute. The city has more than 50 museum, is known as the city museum, famous Russian museum was established in 1895. The city enjoys a high reputation of Russia’s ancient architectural complexes, belong to the early 18th century main buildings: Peter and Paul fortress bury ground (Peter) and Peter and Paul cathedral, admiralty islands of Peter the great summer garden and garden Summer Palace, etc. These buildings are built with Russian characteristics of early the baroque architecture, of primitive simplicity, majestic, calm and steady. In the late 18th century building has the Mohr’s palace, the winter palace, the tower column palace, Krakow, Anic palace (renamed after the October revolution children’s palace). In the early 19th century the main building are: grand Kazan cathedral, up to 101 meters of Isaac Kiev’s cathedral and so on. Many famous Russian poet and writer, such as Pushkin, Lermontov, Gorky and others have in this life and engaged in writing.
St Petersburg is secondary political of Russia, economic and cultural center, is the northwest central city, also known as “northern capital”. It has more than 4000 industrial enterprises, its output value accounted for 6% of Russia’s gross industrial output value, industrial products sold well all over the country. Industry is given priority to with ships, machinery manufacturing, ship building scale in the commonwealth of independent states (cis) in the first place, can produce large atomic icebreaker, also produce all kinds of vehicles, motor and weapons.