History of Pompeii, the ancient city in Italy
In southern Italy in the coastal city of Naples with a long history, but annihilated by the mountain Vesuvius eruption in 79 AD, and was erased from the human memory. It was not until two hundred years ago people in accidentally hit a mysterious castle to the deep sleep for thousands of years. Since then, a series of archeological work slowly opened the mysterious veil, and let people see the prosperity of its original and charming luster, the ancient city of Pompeii.
Pompeii recreates the Roman face the about the life of people with a precious wealth of history. There would be a UNESCO world cultural and natural heritage, tourists said here is the “natural history museum”. Pompeii now just open one-third part, the rest are buried in the ground. But now even the one-third part also faces a huge test: on November 6, 2010 morning, the important of the ancient city of Pompeii, Gladiator training place of stone house building, fell in the heavy rain; on November 30, the garden wall of Moral house collapsed; On December 1, two walls of the building collapsed. Italian public opinion to this uproar, Italian President George Mr. Napolitano says this is “disgrace” in Italy.
Pompeii in 62 AD, a big earthquake, the ancient city suffered serious damage, the Roman emperor Nero once even considering whether should abandon this place, many residents of Pompeii chose to stay. But as the inscription on the ancient city ruins in a fresco said, “nothing in the world can eternity”, the reconstruction of the Pompeii has yet to be completed, a doom followed.
Disappeared in 18 hours
In A.D. 62 years ago, Vesuvius the active volcano is a moderate demure lady, what will people do not worry about it.
But in the tranquility of the appearance, but has been accumulated for thousands of years of power. On August 24, 79 AD (a) on October 24, finally succumb to a force. From 1 to 7 in the morning the following day, 18 hours of time, a volcanic eruption of Pompeii, and four times the lava flows and 3 times of dust is the complete annihilation of the attacks.
The history of mankind’s most famous disaster to record, thanks to the 17-year-old Pliny the younger. When a volcano erupts, he is talking with his mother in Senna (Pompeii), 20 kilometers on the other side to visit uncle Pliny the elder. Pliny the younger witnessed the whole process of volcanic eruption. Six years later, he at the request of the Roman historian Tacitus, wrote two letters, a record as the naval commander of the Roman empire Pliny the elder to participate in the rescue process, another letter describes the eruption: “a large cedar in the shape of dark clouds suddenly appeared on the horizon, a huge fire burns brightly. Due to the sky become dark, flame appears. The earthquake constantly, we are afraid to go out, because of the burning volcanic rock as hail slammed down from the sky??”
Tacitus put the younger Pliny letter into his writings, also make deep buried Pompeii city such as Rome made a glimmer in the dynasty.
Also said in the letter, after the disaster came, the Roman empire fleet sent part of the boat to the other side is trying to rescue, but pouring of ash, gravel, smoke rise under the blaze, and give off poisonous gases when an eruption of lava, a few days can’t fade, rescue work to carry. Many rescuers self-care, died.
The disaster consumed more than 2000 people (Pompeii has about 20000 inhabitants, most to escape), also buried the crystallization of human civilization.
Excavated historic spectacle of Pompeii
Years may wrinkle the day turn star move, more than 1600 years in the past. People seem to have forgotten the eruption of mountain Vesuvius huge disaster for the Romans, and forget the deep buried Pompeii.
In the early 18th century, a historian, reading historical materials, unexpectedly found near mount Vesuvius had several be inundated the city. Although people have been found in this area after many precious statues, money and human remains, but it was not until 1763, archeologists have unearthed here a piece of stone engraved with the word “Pompeii”, people knew here was buried by volcanic eruptions of the Roman city of Pompeii.
Wrapped body due to the ash solidification shell, after the physical decay, and formed the shape of the ash shell, Fiorelli, he invented the “plaster casting method”, set up to clear the parcel of ash in the outside, is there a lifelike person of the body, which represent the various tragic victims dying conditions: some her hands on her head, curled up together and sit pain; A master-slave was locked with chains, cannot escape when disaster strikes, had to lay down and die; The most admirable is an ordinary soldier, he has been at the city gate, until its magma and the fire devour, facial expression is still peaceful, easy. After 100 years of mining, and she fell asleep for nearly 2000 years of Pompeii finally reproduce the earth.
Regeneration of Pompeii and the Pompeii today
Goethe after visiting Pompeii once said: “In many disasters in the world, has never had any disaster like Pompeii, it brings the posterity is such a great pleasure. Unexpected disaster just provides us with the experience of Pompeii.
Pompey’s business and manual already quite developed, there is a wide variety of manual mill and small shops. There are many mill workshop, baking bread, olive oil, oil mill. Every street has a few little hotel, the counter is built with a smooth stone chips, each it build by laying bricks or stones of different size in the counter, customers can go home to buy wine, can also be drinking at the counter, many inn engaged in beverage, accommodation, casinos and other “business”. Pompeii people show their love of money without covering, a businessman in the store, writing on the plaque – “Money, welcome you”.
Pompeii people also attach great importance to leisure, health and entertainment, the city 10% of the land used for the construction of recreational facilities, the city has three big baths, an arena, two theaters. There are many black slaves in the baths, provide massage, bath guest with olive oil, makeup and hair removal, etc. Arenas audiences can accommodate nearly 20000 people. The battle between low and surrounded by stone walls, the audience stands in step, and the modern is very similar to the stadium.
Pompeii “disappear” one thousand miracle was regenerated, but at the same time of excavation, repair work and also destroyed the ancient city of tourism. For the recent collapse, mayor of Pompeii Alessio said: “this is an avoided event. We should realize the Pompeii is one of the world’s largest open-air museum, but unfortunately it is often overlooked.”