In 1885, Austrian geologist E. Suess noticed the strata on the southern hemisphere continents is very consistent, thus infer that they were from the decomposition of the original ancient continent split together, he will be the original ancient continent called “Gondwanaland”, also known as the “southern ancient land”, or “Gondwana continent”. “Gondwana” is a place of east-central India, the scope of the Gondwana includes modern South America, Africa and the Arabian peninsula, Antarctica, Australia and India peninsula, some people think that also includes Central-South Europe and China regions such as the Himalayas.
As early as in 1620, British philosopher bacon had noticed a convergence of phenomenon, east coast of South America and the west coast of Africa and put forward the western hemisphere has the possibility of a connected with Europe and Africa. Prudhoe Bay in France in 1668, and says the flood before, America and other parts of the earth are linked. At the beginning of the 20th-century American geologist Taylor and baker made the idea of continental drift, respectively and made the mainland the best answer. Meteorologists in 1912, Germany Wagner proposed the “theory of continental drift,” published in 1915, and the book “the origin of the land and sea” has made the detailed argument. Modern paleomagnetism and the development of computer technology, for more precision cast Gondwana continent provides reliable information.
Geological data from various aspects to prove the Gondwana “really existed. First of all, the best pick of the continental coastline not only, and can according to the 2000 meters below sea level (continental slope midpoint) of contour accurately split from each other. Second, continental blocks were very similar in geological structure, and even can be connected to each other. As African giant gneiss rock assemblage and fold the direction consistent with Brazil; Southern tip of Africa east-west Permian fold mountains fold mountain range is consistent with the same period in Argentina; India’s gneiss fold direction consistent with that of Africa and Madagascar, and can be connected with Australia, etc. Third, continental blocks have the same boundary. On the continental blocks, for example, Triassic, are all terrestrial reptiles Lystrosaurus fauna. Fourth, continental blocks were widespread carboniferous – Permian moraine layer, and Glossopteris flora alternating strata shows that the ancient climate completely consistent experienced a great ice, glacial and interglacial appear alternately. Fifth, the Gondwana in the middle of the carboniferous period after the competition, each block ancient magnetic pole position and magnetic pole moving curve can fit well.
Geological records reveal has detailed the history of the Gondwana. Proterozoic, the inside of the Gondwana many areas, such as west Africa, the Midwest (Congo), south (Kalahari), as well as South America, Antarctica, Australia and India, has formed a number of a relatively stable platform. Early Paleozoic era, gather around the table respectively in the east butte Wana (India, Australia, Antarctica) and western Gondwana (Africa, South America) two parts, each has its unique geologic features. Later, and in the early carboniferous epoch was formed with unified geologic characteristics of Gondwana. But since late carboniferous epoch, ancient land internal differences, form the intracontinental rift valley. In late Paleozoic, the unity of Gondwana before for west and north Laurasia narrow east, shaped like a bell mouth wide separation of the ancient Tethys ocean. Mesozoic Triassic, form the narrow trench of East Africa, Madagascar, foreshadow the Gondwana began to collapse. At the end of Jurassic to cretaceous period, the Indian Ocean has greatly opened. India is separated from Australia and Antarctica, gradually drift to the north, the south Atlantic ocean expansion, North America and South America. Drift southward into the new generation, Antarctica, and finally separated from Australia, formed the pattern of today’s sea. Recently, the red sea began to form, the Arabian peninsula from Africa, the east African rift valley, mean there will be further divided, East Africa new sea or ocean will be born again.