The geography of Nigeria:
Nigeria area is more than 920,000 square kilometers. Nigeria is located in the Southeast of west Africa, and borders Atlantic and the gulf of Guinea in the south. His west side is bordering with Benin, and Niger border at the north, northeast on the other side of the lake Chad, east and southeast are connected to the Cameroon. The coastline is 800 kilometers long. Coastal plain for about 80 km wide strip. In most parts of southern mountain hills average in 200-500 meters above sea level. Center of Nigeria is Niger – Benoit Valley; North side is Hao-Saran highlands witch is more than 1/4 of total Nigeria area with the average elevation of 900 meters. The Niger river and its tributaries Benué River are the main rive. The Niger river is about 1400 km long in the land. Nigeria is belong to tropical monsoon climate, high temperature and rainy, the year is divided into wet and dry conditions, and annual average temperature is 26 ~ 27 ℃.
Nigeria belongs to Africa’s ancient civilization, as early as two thousand years ago there was a relatively developed culture. The 8th century BC, Zaghawa has been established the Kanem – Bornu empire around the nomadic tribes in the Lake Chad. 14 to 16 century, Songhai empire reached its zenith. The Portuguese invaded in 1472, and the middle of the 16th century the British invaded. Nigeria was colonized by the British in 1914, according to “colony and protectorate in Nigeria. In 1947, Britain ratified Nigeria’s new constitution, the federal government. In 1954, Nigeria’s federal internal autonomy. On October 1, 1960, to declare independence, and became a member of the commonwealth. Established on October 1, 1963, federal republic of Nigeria. In November 1993, headed by the Abacha’s military takeover, form the interim leadership council and the executive committee of the exercise of state power. The Abacha sudden death on June 8, 1998, and the defense staff Abubakar took over as head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces determine on May 29, 1999, to the elected government. In the presidential election held in February 1999, the people’s democratic candidate and former head of state President Olusegun Obasanjo were elected the fourth republic, and in the office on May 29. Nigeria’s President announced that it would withdraw from the k peninsula.
The economy of Nigeria:
Nigeria is Africa‘s first, the world’s 10th largest oil producer, is also one of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (Opec) members. Nigeria’s proven oil reserves of 35.2 billion barrels, Nissan 2.5 million barrels of crude oil. Nigerian independence is an agricultural country, the early rise of the oil industry in the 1970 s, and become the pillar industry of national economy. At present, the oil industry output value accounted for 20% to 30% of gross domestic product in Nigeria, 95% of foreign exchange income and 80% of the federal government fiscal income comes from the oil industry. In recent years, oil exports have more than $10 billion. Nigeria has rich natural gas, coal and other resources. He’s proven reserves of 5 trillion cubic meters of natural gas, ranked among the top of the world. Coal reserves of about 2.75 billion tons is the only west African country of coal.
After the eighty s, Nigeria faced with the international market oil prices and the economic troubles. 1992, Nigeria was listed a low-income countries by the international monetary fund. Since 1995, the government on economic rectification obtained the certain result. In 1998, due to the international market oil price and domestic refinery production, economic growth is slowing down. Obasanjo came to power in 1999, the liberalization and privatization reform actively, tightening monetary policy, raising new debt by the strict limit, we will vigorously support agriculture, strengthen the development of industry, such as oil, natural gas, mining and infrastructure construction, actively strive for foreign investment, foreign aid and debt relief. Due to the international market oil prices continue to rise a favorable external factor, economy tends to be better. Main manufacturing for textile, vehicle assembly, wood processing, cement, beverage and food processing, mostly concentrated in the city and the surrounding area. Dilapidated infrastructure, technology level is low, most industrial products are still dependent on imports. The agriculture of Nigeria was accounting for 40% of gross domestic product (GDP). 70% of the nation’s labor force engaged in agriculture. The main production is concentrated in the north area of agriculture. Agricultural production is still mainly small-scale peasant economy, food cannot be self-sufficient, still needs a large number of imported each year.